Published Monthly by Raised Dot Computing, Inc., 408 South Baldwin Street, Madison WI 53703. General phone: 608-257-9595. Technical Hotline: 608-257-8833.
Subscriptions: $18/year Print, $20/year Audio Tape, $30/year Disk. (Kindly add $20/year for postage outside N. America.)
Submissions are always welcome, especially on diskette. All are subject to editing for style and clarity. All opinions expressed are those of the author. Editors: Jesse Kaysen & Phyllis Herrington
Entire contents copyright 1988 by Raised Dot Computing, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Nothing may be reprinted in any medium--print, braille, audio, or electronic--without prior written permission from RDC Inc.
Table of Contents: the all-uppercase words name the disk chapters; the words after the equals sign are the actual article titles.
READ ME FIRST = How To Read the RDC Newsletter on Disk
CONTENTS = Table of Contents (print page 1)
RDC NEWS = Includes "Laser Lines from the Editor," "Braille BEX 3.0 Manuals Now Available," and "Contacting RDC by Phone." (print page 2)
OUR READERS WRITE = Includes "Does RDC Still Care -- Al Gayzagian" and "RDC Newsletter Focus is Narrowing -- Neal Ewers" (print pages 2-4)
BRL NOT OUTMODED = Technology Has Not Outmoded Braille -- Phyllis Herrington (print pages 4-6)
CTEVH = CTEVH Conference: What's In It for You? -- David Holladay
BEX BEGINNERS = BEX Beginner's Corner: Coping with Copies (print pages 6-8)
IBM & BEX = Transferring Plain ASCII Files between the Apple and the IBM-PC -- David Holladay, Caryn Navy, and Phyllis Herrington (print pages 8-12)
BULLETIN BOARD = Includes Modem for Sale; CTEVH Guidelines for CBC; New Catalog of Braille Children's Books; Apple IIc/BEX for Sale; LINC Resources on Disk (print pages 12-13)
MORE PERIODICALS = Expanding Your Information Horizons -- Jesse Kaysen (print pages 13-14)
NEWS INDEX 1987 = Index to 1987 RDC Newsletter -- D. "Barney" Barnett (print pages 14-19)
FACTS ON FILE = Who's Who at Raised Dot Computing; Production Notes; Trademarks and Copyrights (print page 19)
Many readers have called or written to say they appreciated the "BEX Beginner's Corner" that started last month. Another installment begins on page 6. We're eager to hear your reaction to this treatise on copying--is it too easy, too hard, or just right?
April is just around the corner, and April means Sensory Overload. We will again run a Sensory Overload contest for Newsletter readers, so sharpen your wits and start thinking silly. The RDC contributions will appear next month, along with full contest details.
Beginning with this issue, Phyllis Herrington joins the Newsletter's editorial staff. Check out her article, "Technology Has Not Outmoded Braille," and I'm sure you will agree that she brings a new perspective to these pages.
We're tickled pink to report that the BEX 3.0 braille manuals have arrived, weighing in at a svelte 14 volumes. If you've been waiting for braille manuals to upgrade to BEX 3.0, wait no longer. (These manuals were produced at National Braille Press directly from TranscriBEX disks. Any BEX owners interested in making press braille from their disks should contact Jesse Kaysen for a copy of the guidelines.)
We hope the following information makes it easier for you to talk with the person you want to reach at RDC. We answer our phone lines from 9 am to 12:30 pm, and from 1:15 pm to 5 pm, Central time zone. RDC has two phone numbers, and it really helps us out when you can call direct. Our technical support staff answer 608-257-6863; our administrative staff answer 608-257-9595. When you need to talk with both technical and administrative folks, we can transfer your call.
There are also times we don't answer the phones: From 12:30 pm to 1:15 pm Monday through Friday, the RDC staff hides out in the conference room, eating peanut-butter-and-banana sandwiches and reading computer gossip columns. On Friday afternoons, we have our all-staff meeting, so you probably will get our answering machine after 3 pm on Fridays.
We welcome your thoughts on the Newsletter, on RDC's products, on the prospects for world peace, or any other topic of interest. We publish letters verbatim--shorter is better!
An open letter to RDC:
My initial reaction to the letter describing the procedure for obtaining BEX 3.0 was that RDC was engaging in a real rip-off, that with presumably much of its income now coming from agencies paying for RDC products with our tax dollars, RDC no longer cared much about the individual paying his or her own way, that RDC had lost the sense of mission and devotion to the needs of the blind and visually impaired community which had motivated its actions during the early and middle '80s.
It wasn't only what I considered the exorbitant $175 price for the new version that triggered this reaction, but also the unreasonable stipulation that people return their original and all backup BEX disks, leaving anyone foolish enough to comply with this stipulation without a program during the time required to get the disks to RDC and the new version back to the user. It might astound RDC to know that some of us use our BEX programs daily, or close to it.
Upon further reflection, I came to the conclusion that I was perhaps being too hard on RDC. After all, the procedure letter did recognize that some of us might be taken aback by the price of the new version and explained that the price covered actual costs--a statement I have no reason to doubt. In addition, the letter promised that RDC will continue to support BEX 2.2.
It is this promise and how it is kept that I think will test RDC's sincerity and demonstrate whether or not the organization still cares about us. In my opinion, fulfillment of this promise should include upgrading 2.2 with the bug fixes that have been incorporated into 3.0. After all, these bugs were not the fault of the user, and since they now can be eliminated, they ought to be. The editing and translation improvements included in 3.0 should also be reflected in any 2.2 updates, except for those specifically linked to making the program work with the IIgs or RAM cards, which I believe to be the legitimate province of 3.0.
I hope I have now reached a balanced, fair assessment of RDC's latest offer, as I have always looked up to this organization for its integrity and its commitment to us users. I must, however, withhold any final judgment until I see whether RDC's performance lives up to my expectations regarding the promise to continue supporting BEX 2.2. I very much hope it is.
David Holladay, RDC President, responds: We appreciate Mr. Gayzagian's letter because it raises a number of issues. Certainly we were troubled about having to offer this upgrade for such a high price. The upgrade is very attractive to those with an Apple IIgs, or 3.5-inch disk drives, or RAM drives. Those only desiring improved translators, Editor, or manuals may not find it so attractive. We are sorry that we cannot offer an alternative.
Many have called to inquire about how to keep using BEX daily and still acquire the upgrade. To those that inquire we work out an arrangement which satisfies both parties.
And finally, Mr. Gayzagian wants to know what RDC means when it refers to "support for BEX 2.2". It means that we will assist users who have technical problems. In some situations we send out a bug fixing disk. If you experience a bug, call or write us.
By the way, we printed an article in the April 1987 issue of the RDC Newsletter describing how to create a RAM drive on BEX 2.2. If you want an inexpensive way of dramatically improving your BEX program, you can install up to 1 megabyte of RAM memory in an Apple IIc or an Apple IIe. Where BEX 3.0 and the "newsletter update" differ in the use of RAM drives is that BEX 3.0 has fewer "rough edges" and is more automatic. But it amounts to the same thing.
Fewer and fewer of the articles in the Newsletter are those which I wish to read. Now I know, you can't write the Newsletter just for me, well why not? How much would it cost to have my own personalized Newsletter? I'm kidding, of course, but it would be nice. I think there are two problems worth mentioning with the present state of things as I see them.
1. I use braille very infrequently. Thus, the many good articles you have on braille devices and their attendant uses are articles I often do not read. There are obviously people who need to know about these devices, and I think you perform a great service for them. I wonder, however, how many people there are like me. I, and I suspect others, use BEX as a word processor in situations that have little, if any, connection with braille translating, back-translating, or printing to braille devices. I wonder if there are others in my shoes who fail to subscribe to the Newsletter because there are too many articles they don't find useful?
2. When I first began receiving the Newsletter, three years ago, it seems to me that there were fewer things to write about. We have come a long way in three years. The increased use of the IBM by blind users, and the space that is devoted to it in the Newsletter, is a good example. Once again you provide a valuable service to people who use this and other computers and peripherals. But the physical size of the Newsletter has not increased to keep pace with this additional information. Thus, there are fewer articles that contain information of value to users of one particular kind of computer and its related equipment. It's not that I want to only read about things available for the Apple. Often the IBM articles have made me wonder if I want to go that route. It's just that I have a sense that I'm not getting as many articles about the equipment I actually use as I did three years ago. I would gladly pay more to get more. I wonder how many other people feel the same way?
Jesse Kaysen, Newsletter Editor, responds: Mr. Ewers raises two valid points; let me respond in turn. 1. Most writers are most comfortable writing about what they know. Here at RDC, we use BEX to do a lot of braille transcribing, so the articles we write for the Newsletter reflect our experience. In addition, the staff of RDC feels strongly the need to advocate for increased braille use. (Phyllis Herrington's "Technology Has Not Outmoded Braille" article that folllows addresses this issue in greater detail.) I would love to publish articles about other ways to use BEX--please write one today! If you're unsure about how to put your thoughts on paper, please give me a call. I enjoy midwifing other writers.
2. Unfortunately, RDC doesn't have the staff resources to expand the Newsletter proportionally to the blossoming of hardware and software in the sensory aids field. On the other hand, the flowering of sensory aids has also included a bouquet of periodicals. As Editor, I try to minimize duplication between the RDC Newsletter and the other fine publications in our market. It's hard for any one publication to fill all one's needs. I am very interested in the Macintosh and its software development. In order to keep up on all the news, I read one weekly, two monthlies, and two quarterlies. Take a look at the "Expanding Your Information Horizons" article on page 13, that lists subscription information for nine periodicals that complement the RDC Newsletter.
We recently received a newspaper clipping of an Associated Press copyrighted wire story. Elia Chepaitis, whose mother was going blind, has developed a new reading system called "ELIA." She feels that her new approach, which uses patterns of embossed circles and squares, is a better alternative to braille. She feels braille is too cumbersome and difficult: she said "braille isolates the blind from their surrounding culture and there isn't much printed in braille. ... Almost everything today is printed on disc and braille is not suitable to the computer environment." Fortunately, the AP reporter also spoke with Dr. Susan Spungin, past BANA chair, who stressed that "braille isn't really that hard and it is totally computerized." But Ms. Chepaitis' final words were "Braille doesn't relate to anything someone going blind knows. And if they're shut off from the written word and their culture, it leads to psychological problems ... They deteriorate very fast."
When I heard this story, my immediate reaction was outrage. I may be a "braille bigot," (to use Noel Runyan's phrase), but I am convinced that braille is a powerful and liberating tool for blind people. Having calmed down a little, I want to present some of the arguments for and against braille in the latter half of the 20th century. It is not my intent to alienate anyone, whether they are interested in braille transcription, access to material through audio means, or getting a good printout in inkprint.
For well over a century, braille was the only means by which blind people could communicate in a written form. Although many sighted individuals do not know braille, it enabled blind people to become literate. My definition of "literacy" means being able to both read and write independently. Braille users were and are able to write down their own thoughts and manage their personal affairs. Braille provides a truly random access medium, unlike the inherently sequential medium of audio tape.
Many critics complain braille is out of date in a technologically advanced era. They challenge its usefulness, since there are numerous speech devices that work in conjunction with computers, providing a blind person with true random access to text. I do not deny that these arguments are good ones, nor do I deny the fact that braille as a system for reading and writing is not favored by everyone. However, I do believe braille is just as modern today as when the first braille code was adopted in France in 1829.
In 1988, braille is still viewed as the major system by which the blind are taught how to read and write. Braille, just like print, has evolved to accommodate representation of scientific and mathematical materials. Admittedly, braille users must learn new codes to decipher math and computer notation, but these codes give an accurate representation of what appears in print. Computer science students or those who wish to program for the fun of it no longer have to guess about what they should actually enter via keyboard.
For me braille is important on a more elementary level. When I learned to read, though I was doing so with my fingers, I felt "normal." I was able to take my Bible to church and follow along with the Scripture readings. I could read at night, when my brother and sister had to turn off the light and stop reading. Far from "isolating [me] from the surrounding culture," braille empowered me to take my place in my school, church, and community.
I do not wish to belittle the importance of auditory learning. I never would have gotten a college education without Recording for the Blind and friends who were available to read for me. However, I would have preferred these materials in braille. Why? I could have easily reread troublesome passages; technical material is often close to incomprehensible in audio formats. My spelling would have been much better as well. Although I now use recorded materials for class and even the Optacon, (which in itself has opened many avenues for me), I still prefer taking an active role in learning, by brailling class notes.
My intent in this discourse is not to say one learning style is better than another, but I'm disturbed that some question the viability of braille as a reading and writing system for the blind. In the past, the availability of braille materials depended on the manual efforts of a dedicated army of volunteer transcribers.
Since braille is a complex code, many overworked sighted teachers of the blind did not have the time to develop braille fluency. The standards for braille transcription are very high, and we at RDC strive to make tools that meet these standards. Transcribers require accurate translators, proper formatting, and quick means of accomplishing the task. Thanks in part to computer software like RDC's TranscriBEX, more and more individuals are getting involved in braille transcription. As a braille reader, I'm delighted that more and more braille materials are becoming available.
Knowing when and how to copy your data is an important part of learning to use computers. You can tell BEX to make copies of individual chapters, and you can get BEX to make copies of entire disks. Your method depends on how much data you have and what you want to do with it.
One common reason you copy is to create a "back-up" version of important data. Floppy disks are very vulnerable to careless handling. If you spill coffee on the disk, let your fingers come in contact with the shiny magnetic surface, or set it down too near a magnet (like the microphone on a telephone handset) then all the information is lost forever.
Whenever you spend time and effort creating words with BEX, spend just a little more time to make a back-up copy of the chapters, using either Copy chapters or Copy disks. Always make your back-ups onto a separate disk, and then store that back-up disk somewhere else. The best place is another building--then even a tornado can't harm your precious data--but at least keep your back-ups in an out-of-the-way closet, filing cabinet, or locker.
Copying individual BEX chapters can help you format your text faster. For example, you create a LETTER chapter that contains all the right $$ commands for a business letter, as well as your return address. Instead of retyping this information every time you write a letter, use LETTER as a template, or guide. When you want to write a letter to the Post Office, first copy the LETTER chapter to a PO chapter. You edit the PO chapter to write the text of your letter; the LETTER chapter is unchanged, ready to be copied again for the next letter you write.
You use option C - Copy chapters on the Second Menu to make an identical copy of the data in one or more BEX chapters. Your "target chapter naming method" controls the new chapter's name and on which disk drive BEX writes it.
Here's a sample when you're working with one chapter. Suppose you want to copy your LETTER template chapter from one disk to a PO chapter on another disk. With your BEX disk in drive 1, press S to get to the Second Menu. Now remove your BEX program disk from drive 1, and replace it with the data disk containing the LETTER template. Insert the other data disk, where BEX will write the PO chapter, into drive 2, and proceed as follows:
Enter Option: C
Drive number or chapter name: 1LETTER<CR>
Target chapter name: 2PO <CR>
The initial digit one in 1LETTER tells BEX to read the LETTER source chapter from the disk in drive 1. The initial digit two in 2PO tells BEX to write the target PO chapter on the disk in drive 2. The PO chapter contains exactly the same characters as LETTER it just has a different name.
When you want to copy more than one chapter, you don't have to type each target chapter name individually. Instead, you use code letters that tell BEX how to name the target chapters. Suppose a friend wants to read two of your book reports. After you get to the Second Menu, put your disk in drive 2, and your friend's disk in drive 1.
Enter Option: C
Drive numer or chapter name: 2<CR>
There are 2 chapters:
1 LAD A DOG
Use entire list? N Y <CR>
Target chapter naming method: 1S <CR>
When you enter 2<CR> BEX scans the disk in drive 2 for chapters and presents a numbered list. In this case, you enter Y<CR> telling BEX to copy every chapter. The naming method 1S tells BEX two things: the initial digit one means BEX writes the chapters on drive 1; and the letter S tells BEX to use the same name for the target chapters as the source chapters. There are a variety of other target chapter naming methods you can use--read all about it in Learner Level Section 11 and User Level Section 4.
Whenever BEX copies chapters, it copies one BEX page at a time. When you are making back-up copies of every chapter on a disk that's more than one-quarter full, Copy disks takes less time than Copy chapters.
When you want to backup all the data on a disk, use option C - Copy disks on BEX's Starting Menu. Your source disk goes in drive 1, and the duplicate disk that will be your back-up goes in drive 2. When BEX (or any other program) copies entire disks, any information that used to be on the target disk is totally erased.
After you press C for Copy disks, put your disks in the drives, and press <CR>, BEX starts out by reading both disks. BEX is checking to make sure that your target disk is not a BEX program disk (so you won't erase your program disk by mistake). If the disk in drive 2 is a BEX disk, then BEX beeps and asks you to insert a different target disk.
When the disk in drive 2 isn't a BEX disk, then BEX initializes it, wiping all the information off the disk, and testing to make sure that every part of the disk is ready to accept data. Initializing makes a "gronking" noise, which sounds nasty but is perfectly normal. After the initialization is complete, BEX reads some data from the source disk in drive 1, and then writes that data on the target disk in drive 2. BEX repeats this process until the target disk is an exact copy of the source disk--it takes around two minutes.
When you want to copy more than one disk at a time, take advantage of the Diversi-COPY utility supplied in your BEX Binder. Diversi-COPY is very fast, but it won't work with speech or large print. Sighted people can follow the on-screen prompts; others should read the BLIND USERS chapter on the Diversi-COPY disk for instructions.
From March 17 through 19, the California Transcribers and Educators of the Visually Handicapped (CTEVH) and the National Braille Association (NBA) Western Region will hold a joint conference in Irvine California. Because of the size and broad focus of CTEVH conferences, they have become an almost-national event. The conference schedule is full of panels, product presentations, workshops, and hands-on computer workshops of interest to users, transcribers, and teachers of braille. This year, we are pleased that Gloria Buntrock will be presenting a two part hands-on computer lab on "Getting the Most Out of TranscriBEX." Unfortunately for those not on the CTEVH mailing list, the computer labs required preregistration and this one is already booked up.
More than 85 workshops, led by CTEVH and NBA specialists and other presenters, will intrigue a diverse audience: transcribers, teachers, parents, and administrators. Here are some of the presentations that we do not want to miss. A panel discussion on the topic "Do I want to Transcribe on the Computer?" will cover systems and software; including both braille and print data entry. The panelists are Diann and Ken Smith, Gloria Buntrock, and Debbie Frederichs. Conchita Gilbertson will be presenting the new Linear Braille Format, and Priscilla Harris will be presenting the new Computer Braille Code.
Raised Dot Computing will be exhibiting at the conference, and we look forward to meeting some of you there. Both the CBC and LBF braille codes are supported by the CodeX software that we're currently developing. Caryn Navy will give a product presentation covering TranscriBEX and introducing CodeX.
I spoke briefly with Jane Vogel, who helps coordinate registration. She stated that each year about 200 people register at the conference, and there is no problem with attendance of any workshop or product presentation other than the computer labs. Pre-conference registration is on March 16th. Registration to non-CTEVH members is $28, and includes the cost of CTEVH membership. For those needing last minute registration information, call Jane Vogel at 714-964-3339 extension 293. The conference will be held at the Irvine Hilton; their phone number is 714-863-3111.
There are a number of ways to transfer plain (also known as "7-bit") ASCII data between the Apple and the IBM-PC. You can attach modems and run telecommunications software on both machines. You can buy special disk controller cards that allow one machine to read the disks of the other. In this article, we will describe the transfer of data in two directions over a serial connection, using the BEX software on the Apple, and MS-DOS version 3.1 on the IBM-PC. We don't know if the technique we describe depends on this particular version of DOS; if you are having troubles with earlier versions, then getting MS-DOS 3.1 could help.
While this article describes using BEX, the information here can be generalized to data transfers from almost any serial computer to the IBM-PC. There are just three requirements: the cable is wired correctly; your device lets you establish the serial parameters we specify; and your device supports hardware handshaking.
The IBM-to-Apple procedure represents our latest word on the topic; it builds on the information that appears in BEX 3.0 User Level Section 12 (which, in turn, was based on Phyllis' January 1987 RDC Newsletter article.) The Apple-to-IBM procedure, however, appears for the first time in these pages. For more than a year, we unsuccessfully struggled to get data from the Apple to the IBM. For a long time, we blamed the cable. But it turns out the culprit was data format! Even for RS-232 jockeys like us, serial interfaces can be very frustrating.
The same cable works for data transfer in both directions. To connect the IBM serial port to an Apple Super Serial Card, use a male to female straight through cable with wires 4 and 20 shorted together, which RDC sells as a "9F" for $35. To connect the IBM serial port to an Apple IIc, use RDC's "10F" cable, also $35. (See BEX Interface Guide Section 14 for the wiring diagram of this cable.)
When you send data from the IBM to the Apple, you use BEX's Input through Slot. On the Apple IIgs, Input through slot requires an Apple Super Serial Card; you can't use the IIgs ports. Sending data from the Apple to the IBM is less critical; you can use a IIgs port for data flowing to the PC.
When you are using an Apple Super Serial Card, set the switches to the RDC "Standard Parameters," as follows":
Set the jumper block to "terminal".
Switch bank one: off off off on off on off.
Switch bank two: off off on on on off off.
For this file transfer procedure to work, you must have BEX 2.2 or BEX 3.0. BRAILLE-EDIT, BEX 2.0, or BEX 2.1 cannot handshake correctly with the IBM-PC.
Configure BEX with a "download device" or "remote serial device to input text through slot." Answer "no" to the question asking if you have a Kurzweil Reading Machine. Use Input through Slot on BEX's Second Menu. Once you supply a target chapter name and press <CR>, BEX prompts you to start the transfer.
On the IBM-PC, you must have access to both a data disk and your DOS disk. In the following samples, we assume the DOS disk is in drive A and the data disk is in drive B. At the DOS prompt type:
MODE LPT1:=COM1 <Enter>
MODE COM1:96,N,8,2,P <Enter>
PRINT B:[filename.ext] <Enter>
The first time you print, the PC tells you:
NAME OF LIST DEVICE PRN =:
Just press <Enter> at this point. You should hear a buzzing sound from the Apple. When the IBM is finished sending, press Q on the Apple keyboard to close the BEX chapter.
When the IBM file you are sending is over 100,000 characters, it won't fit in one BEX chapter. Thirty full BEX pages is a limit for one Apple 5.25-inch disk--around 110,000 characters. After around 15 minutes into the transfer at 9600 baud, press control-S on the IBM. Wait for the IBM to pause and for the Apple to stop clicking, then press Q on the Apple. Now, insert a fresh Apple disk and use Input through Slot again, specifying a new chapter name. When the Apple is ready, press control-Q on the IBM to resume the transfer.
The first step in dealing with the received IBM file is to delete the linefeed <Control-J> characters. The BEXtras disk has a transformation chapter that does a good job of placing BEX paragraph symbols in a textfile from the PC. The name of this chapter changed in BEX 3.0. If you have BEX 2.2 or earlier, use Replace characters with the TXP transformation chapter; if you have BEX 3.0, use the FIX TEXT transformation chapter.
While the transfers from the IBM to the Apple can run at 9600 baud, transfers in the opposite direction require a slower baud rate. On a genuine, original IBM-PC/XT, we were limited to 1200 baud. On an Epson Equity II XT clone, we could use 2400 baud. Test the transfer at a high rate, then lower the rate until you get good data. The following instructions are for 1200 baud. This method only works with up to 65,000 characters--some suggestions on sending larger files appear under "Refinements," below.
Setting the IBM-PC Serial Parameters: On the IBM-PC, type the following:
MODE COM1:12,N,8,1,P <Enter>
COPY COM1 B:[filename.ext] <Enter>
Now the IBM is ready for data; it will wait forever. The IBM-PC recognizes the end of a file when it encounters the <Control-Z> character. You must send a control-Z to tell the IBM-PC that the transmission is over and that the material should be saved to disk. Create a BEX chapter named "Z" consisting of five characters:
The form feed indicator ensures that BEX finishes printing the entire last page. To type a control character in BEX's Editor, first press control-C and then press the plain letter. In this case, press control-C Z to create one <Control-Z>.
Setting the Apple Serial Parameters: When you have an Apple IIc, create a BEX chapter named "SETUP" that consists of the following 15 characters:
<Control-A> 1 D <Control-A> 7 P <Control-A> 8 B <CR> <CR> <Space>$f<Space>
(The only spaces are shown with <Space>; others are added for clarity.) When you are using an Apple IIe or IIgs with a Super Serial Card, set the switches for the "Standard Parameters," as listed above. Your "SETUP" chapter contains the following 18 characters:
<Control-I> 1 D <CR> <Control-I> 7 P <CR> <Control-I> 8 B <CR> <CR> <CR> <Space>$f<Space>
(The SSC version uses control-I in place of control-A, and adds the <CR> required after each SSC command.) When you want to change the serial parameters for the Apple IIgs port, see the BEX Interface Guide for which command character to use.
These commands set the serial interface to 7 data bits, 1 stop bit, space parity, and 1200 baud. On the Apple IIc, the new parameters stay until you send a new control sequence. On a Super Serial Card, the new parameters stay until you press control-Reset. The function of the <CR><CR>$f sequence is explained under "Refinements," below.
Configuring a "Transfer" Printer. How you define the BEX printer for IBM data transfers depends on what sort of format you want in the IBM file. You can always define a New generic inkprint printer with N at BEX's Which printer: prompt. When you only want one <CR> at each paragraph, and no <CR>s at the end of each line, type the BEX format commands $$s1$$l0 at the start of your chapter. In our experience sending plain text to a variety of serial devices, the best bet is configuring a class B - Brailler, number 3 - Cranmer at whatever carriage width and form length you prefer. When you configure your "transfer printer" as a brailler, then BEX automatically suppresses the underlining commands, which could cause problems when they arrive in the other computer. When BEX thinks it's printing to a Cranmer, it pads out each output page with the right number of <CR>s instead of sending formfeed characters, which some IBM tools might not handle.
Starting the Data Transfer. Once you've issued the COPY COM1 command on the PC, use BEX's option P - Print on the Main Menu to send the data over. Your list of chapters begins with "SETUP", then the chapter or chapters of data, and finally the "Z" chapter. Direct this list to the printer number you've configured, or define a new inkprint printer with N. You hear BEX reading from Apple disk, but the IBM is totally silent, since the IBM temporarily holds all the received data in memory. The IBM only saves to disk when it gets the <Control-Z> end-of-file character.
Refinements: Larger Files and Garbage Characters. The IBM's data buffer can only hold 65,000 characters. If you need to send more than 65,000 characters, create several smaller BEX chapters with option G - Grab pages on the Page Menu. Repeat the COPY COM1 process for each file on the IBM. Once all your pieces are on the IBM, you can use the DOS COPY command to merge them together. The syntax is:
COPY [file.a] + [file.b] + [file.c] [bigfile.txt] <Enter>
When the data arrives in the IBM, there should be a linefeed after each <CR>. This happens automatically, since "auto linefeed" is part of the RDC "Standard Parameters," and the control sequences shown above don't change this. When you're working with files that are near the PC's 65,000 character limit, you must remember to account for the linefeeds that are added for every <CR> sent to the IBM-PC.
In every transfer that we have done, there are a few garbage control characters at the top of the IBM file. At least one of these characters is BEX's fault. BEX always sends a break character at the start of each printing session. Use your favorite tool (PC-Write, EDLIN, Hot Dots) to delete these extra characters. Some control characters are harder to delete than others. In some IBM editing software, it is easier to delete whole lines than it is to delete some control characters. That's why we add the six characters <CR><CR>$f at the end of your "control sequence" chapter. They force BEX to move to a new page. When you edit the PC version, your meaningful data appears after the first page break <Control-L> character.
Possible Errors: During our experiments, we encountered three kinds of errors: exceeding 65,000 characters in one transfer; using a baud rate that's too high; or setting the Apple parameters incorrectly. When you have to change the baud rate, be sure to change both devices to the same value. On the IBM, give a new MODE COM1 command. On the Apple, edit the control sequence chapter and use a different value for # in the <command> # B <CR> sequence. All the SSC, IIgs port, and IIc port commands appear in Section 6 of the BEX Interface Guide.
The two transfer procedures are almost mirror images. To send from either machine, you use "print". To receive on the IBM, you tell DOS to copy the text coming to the serial port into a file. To receive on the Apple, you use Input through Slot, which amounts to the same function. To tell BEX and the Apple that the transmission is over, you press a Q on the Apple keyboard. To tell the IBM that the transmission is over, you send it a <Control-Z> character through the serial port.
Step-by-Step: IBM to Apple
1. Cable the two devices together with 9F (or 10F for the IIc).
2. Boot BEX 2.2 or later on the Apple with a configuration including a download device.
3. Boot DOS on the IBM. Set the DOS printer to COM1. Set the serial port to 9600 baud, no parity, 8 data bits, 2 stop bits.
4. On BEX's Second Menu, choose Input through slot and supply a target chapter name.
5. On the IBM, use the DOS PRINT command to send the file out the serial port.
6. When transmission is finished, press Q on the Apple keyboard to close the BEX chapter.
Step-by-Step: Apple to IBM
1. Cable the two devices together with 9F (or 10F for the IIc).
2. Boot BEX (optionally using configuration with "transfer printer")
3. On the IBM, boot DOS and use MODE command to set COM1 serial port to 1200 baud, no parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit.
4. Get the IBM ready to accept data with the COPY COM1 command.
5. Use BEX's Print chapters and specify a list of chapters to print. The first chapter is "SETUP" (setting the Apple serial interface to 1200 baud, space parity, 7 data bits, 1 stop bit), then the data chapter(s), and finally "Z". Direct this print stream to the "transfer printer."
7. On the IBM, use EDLIN, or any other tool, to delete initial garbage characters up to the first <Control-L> in received file.
The key understanding was that, unlike the Apple, the IBM is very fussy about its data formats. Unless the stop bits, data bits, and parity are just right, the IBM emits a nasty message like: GENERAL READ FAILURE, CANNOT READ DEVICE Notice that the previous sentence did not say that "the parameters must match." That's because our Apple-to-IBM procedure depends on a sneaky trick. While we set the Apple to send with 7 data bits and space parity, we tell the IBM to receive at 8 data bits and no parity. This interfacing voodoo makes the Apple's parity bit look like a data bit to the IBM, so that the IBM saves the data correctly on disk.
We are happy to publish short announcements from our readers. Send us your 50 to 200-word announcement, in inkprint, braille, or on disk, and we will put it in the next Newsletter!
Isaac Obie would like to sell a 300 Baud Apple brand "Smartmodem." This direct-connect modem comes with original manuals and cables; asking price is $200. Call Isaac at 617-923-3050 or write him at 55 Waverly Ave., Apt 210; Watertown MA 02172.
The November 1987 Newsletter included a lengthy introduction to the new Code for Computer Braille Notation. We mentioned the "Report of the CBC Workshop" available from the National Braille Association. Elinor Savage, a California transcriber, told us about another resource for transcribers learning the new Code, published by CTEVH. The 120-page "Guidelines for Computer Braille Code" contains many helpful examples. The print copy is $3.50, while the braille is $22. Write: Aikin Connor, TCT Editor; 721 Capitol Mall; Sacramento CA 95814.
The 1988 SEEDLINGS catalog of braille books for children is now available. It includes 75 books which will bring joy to children from preschool to 6th grade (and their parents and teachers!). To receive a copy in print or braille, write or call: SEEDLINGS Braille Books for Children; 8847 Marygrove Drive; Detroit MI 48221; telephone 313-862-7828.
Robert Sweetman has a deal for you: An Apple IIc computer plus monitor; BEX 2.2 and manuals, Cricket speech synthesizer, plus a battery pack and extra case from Prairie Power. (The Prairie Power system needs a new battery.) The whole ball of wax goes for $900 plus shipping costs. Call him in California at work, 818-904-6132 or at home, 818-890-1612.
LINC Resources, Inc. publishes a variety of education databases in diskette form, as well as in print, making their timely information readable for those with speech, large print, or braille access to Apple and IBM-PC computers. In December, LINC announced publication of their Specialware Database, containing more than 800 descriptions of software programs for a wide spectrum of special ed applications, from early childhood to adult education, mildly to severely handicapped, and reading to word processing to administration. Database records are quite detailed and include a wealth of information about each program. The listings are current as of October, 1987, and LINC plans to regularly update the database with new product listings.
The database can be purchased in three forms: categorical subsets in print; categorical subsets on disk; and the entire database on disk. The disk versions are either MS-DOS or Apple II ASCII files. Basic text searches can be accomplished with any word processor that reads ASCII files; users with database programs can do more sophisticated searching. Each package includes HELP files with hints and techniques, as well as full explanations of the database file structure and terminology. The entire database costs $175. Twenty categorical subsets (covering topics like curriculum areas, handicapping conditions, and educational levels) range in price from $10 to $30 depending on length. A directory of "Education Journals and Newsletters" is also available for $25 on disk, $20 in print, or $35 for both disk and print. For more information, contact: LINC Resources; Publications Division; 91 Vine Street; Pawtucket RI 02861; Telephone: 401-725-3973
As Neal Ewers pointed out, the RDC Newsletter alone doesn't cover all the developments in the sensory aids field. We've put together a list of regular magazines whose main focus is computer applications for the visually impaired. (I'm sure that I've inadvertently missed someone; I'd be delighted to publish more information in the months to come about periodicals I've overlooked.) Consider subscribing to several of these as a way of expanding your information horizons. The following subscription information only applies within the continental U.S.: please contact these publishers directly for Canadian and overseas prices.
APPLE TALK: Quarterly; self-contained talking Apple DOS 3.3 disk, $15/year; 3015 S. Tyler Street; Little Rock, AR 72204; (501) 666-6552 (6-9 p.m. CST, only)
BAUD: Bimonthly; audio tape, $24/year; Apple disk, $30/year; Microtalk; PO Box 6959; Louisville KY 40206; (502) 955-8255
CAC Report: Bimonthly; audio tape or large print, $20/year; both audio tape and large print, $25/year. Computer Aids Corporation; 124 W. Washington Blvd., Suite 220; Ft. Wayne IN 46802; (800) 647-8255
The Communicator: Bimonthly; regular print, large print, and audio cassette, $10/year; The Communicator, Rt 4 Box 263, Hillsville VA 24343; (703) 766-3869 (evenings)
Smith-Kettlewell Technical File: Quarterly; $18/year in braille, $12/year on audio tape; Rehabilitation Engineering Center; Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Foundation; 2232 Webster Street; San Francisco, CA 94115; (415) 561-1619
TACTIC: Quarterly; braille, $10/year; Clovernook Printing House for the Blind; 7000 Hamilton Ave.; Cincinnati, OH 45231; (513) 522-3860
Technical Innovations Bulletin: Monthly; audio tape, $30/year; Innovative Rehabilitative Technologies, Inc.; 2277 Old Middlefield Way, Mountain View CA 94043; (415) 961-3161
Technology Update: Bimonthly; regular print or audio tape: $30 for visually impaired individuals; $37 for other individuals; and $47 for organizations; Sensory Aids Foundation; 399 Sherman Avenue, Suite 12; Palo Alto, CA 94306; (415) 329-0430
VersaNews: Triquarterly; print, VersaBraille cassette, or VersaBraille II disk, $20/year; c/o David Goldstein; 87 Sanford Lane; Stamford, CT 06905; (203) 366-3300 NOTE TO DISK READERS: Every index entry ends with a period, so it's a "sentence." In BEX's Editor, use control-T to talk a sentence. For BEX 2.2 and later, you can use control-A control-T to advance cursor silently a sentence, and control-Z control-T to zoom cursor back silently a sentence. The index has three levels of index entries: major, sub-entry, and sub-sub-entry. The major level of entry begins with a paragraph indicator (space, dollar sign, p, space). Minor entries begin with one carriage return followed by one plus sign. Sub-minor entries begin with space, plus sign, plus sign, space, within the same line. Each letter of the alphabet is introduced with BEX's centering command. A key to which letters appear on which BEX pages appears at the end of this BEX page.
This Index covers the majority of information published in the nine Newsletters that appeared between January 1987 and January 1988; some time-dependent anouncements are omitted. The names of all authors who are not RDC staff are also included. Back issues of the Newsletter are available in large print or on audio tape for $2 each. The page references follow the format of Issue Number/Page Number; the issue numbers and months are:
Issue # - Month
48 - January 1987
49 - February 1987
50 - March 1987
51 - April 1987
52 - May 1987
53 - June 1987
54 & 55 - July/August 1987
56 & 57 - September/October 1987
58 - November 1987
59 & 60 - December 1987/January 1988
Mini Table of Contents: BEX page 2 contains letters A through B; BEX page 3 contains letters C through H; BEX page 4 contains letters I through P; BEX page 5 contains letters Q through W (the end).
Andrews, David; ProTERM Plus review - 52/12.
Apple Computers, contrasted with IBM - 52/8.
Apple IIgs: + Apple IIe performance upgrade to - 54 & 55/3. + BEX 3.0 features for - 56 & 57/4. + Braille keyboard incompatibility - 54 & 55/3. + Introduction to - 59 & 60/9. + Speed, compared with Apple IIe - 56 & 57/21.
Apple software (see also MS-DOS; for RDC programs, see BEX, QTC, TranscriBEX, and Hot Dots): + Audio Braille Tutorial - 53/12. + Educational Software, Talking Public Domain - 51/14; 56 & 57/13. + FILE-TALK (Talking DB) Review - 50/7. + FrEdWriter (silent PD word processor) - 56 & 57/14. + Games; see Recreational Computing. + inLARGE (silent Macintosh large print screen access) - 59 & 60/5. + ProTERM Plus (talking terminal program) - 52/12. + Skerfiler (talking phone & address manager with Koala pad) - 50/5. + TEXTALKER, documentation for - 48/2. + Ultimate Banker (talking Apple check writing program) - 59 & 60/21.
Applesoft BASIC line editor, using Echo with - 48/6.
Barsanti, Joanne; Access to Technology for the Blind (H. Lauer & L. Mowinski Interviews) - 54 & 55/13.
BEX: + Accelerator Cards and - 49/5. + Automatic set-up sequences - 59 & 60/6. + BEX 2.2: ++ Modifying for RAM Drives - 51/6; 54 & 55/6. ++ TEXTALKER 3.1.2 and - 48/2. + BEX 3.0: ++ and DOS 3.3, Why? - 56 & 57/22. ++ Features & Upgrading - 56 & 57/2. ++ Speed compared with BEX 2.2 - 56 & 57/21. + Braille Dot Patterns, inkprint. ++ BEX Large Print Braille Font - 51/3. ++ Inkprint Dipner Dots - 54 & 55/5. + Braille Keyboard incompatible with Apple IIgs - 59 & 60/9; 54 & 55/3. + Braille translation of dashes; bug and workaround - 53/4. + Clipboard: ++ Counting text with - 48/3. ++ Salvaging deleted text with - 49/9. + Contextual Replace: ++ assisting Locate with - 58/10. ++ counting terminators in transformation chapters - 49/9. ++ counting words with - 58/10. ++ placing braille boldface indicators with - 54 & 55/4. ++ punctuation and symbol pattern codes for - 51/4. ++ reformatting IBM-PC text with - 56 & 57/17. + Data Recovery Techniques - 54 & 55/16. + Discretionary hyphens, use of - 59 & 60/7. + File Transfers from Apple and BEX to: ++ AppleWorks 2.0 - 52/9. ++ IBM-PC - 48/4; 56 & 57/17. ++ Keynote - 54 & 55/8. ++ Macintosh - 48/8. ++ ProDOS Textfiles with QTC - 52/2; 53/2. + Ohtsuki back translation bug/workaround - 54 & 55/2. + Page Menu, clearing current chapter from - 48/3. + ProDOS, Coexistence with - 50/3. + Proofreading braille with voice - 54 & 55/24. + Running heads, changing within document - 49/10.
Bible: + Meditations on Religion and Computers - 56 & 57/8. + on Audio tapes - 50/10. + The Word Processor (Bible on disks) - 50/10.
Buntrock, Gloria K: + Centering Long Lines on Title Pages - 53/4. + Establishing a Translation Typing Group - 59 & 60/16. + TranscriBEX 2.1 and the \\ppc command - 52/4. ++ Correction - 54 & 55/2.
Braille Tutorial, Audio (software) - 53/12.
Braillers; see Embossers.
Brailling Services: + "BAS" transcription services - 54 & 55/27. + Braille Desktop Publishing - 49/3. + QUIK-SCRYBE - 50/12. + Translation-Typing Groups - 59 & 60/16.
Brown, Bob; If "Big Blue" Doesn't Fit, Don't Wear It - 52/8.
Carter, Robert: + BEX & ProDOS: A Peaceful & Productive Coexistence - 50/3. + Printing Superscripts and Subscripts on the ImageWriter - 52/6.
Clegg, Eric; Toshiba T1100 Plus: A Very Personal MS-DOS Laptop - 56 & 57/19.
Code for Computer Braille Notation: + Introduction to - 58/2. + Correction - 59 & 60/2.
Databases: + ABLEDATA - 53/13. + CompuHelp Bulletin Board - 49/4. + CompuServe Information Service - 49/4. + Fido (Bulletin Board) Manual in Braille - 53/13. + FILE-TALK (Talking Apple DB software) Review - 50/7. + 4-SIGHTS NETWORK - 49/4. + NARIC (National Rehabilitation Information Center) - 53/13. + PC-PURSUIT - 59 & 60/19. + REHABDATA - 53/13.
DiCaprio, Nicholas; Developing a Back-up Strategy - 51/4.
Downing, Winifred; A Talking Electronic Address Book - 50/5.
Dresser, Steve; VersaBraille II+: Dream versus Reality - 53/9.
Echo family of voice synthesizers: (see also Software): + Applesoft Editor, using with - 48/6. + Educational software for - 51/14; 56 & 57/13. + External speakers for - 53/14. + IIb, Introduction to - 49/14. + Reactivating speech after control-Reset - 48/2.
ED-IT (Apple line-oriented braille word processor): + file transfer to BEX - 54 & 55/24. + compared with manual brailling and TranscriBEX - 59 & 60/16. + braille keyboard incompatible with Apple IIgs - 54 & 55/3.
Education, Software & Resources: + Communicator (print & audio quarterly) - 50/12. + Microcomputer News for Teachers of Blind students (print, audio & disk quarterly) - 50/12. + Seedlings Braille Childrens Books - 49/11. + Talking Educational Software - 51/14; 56 & 57/13.
Embossers: + How Embossers Create Braille - 59 & 60/12. + Ohtsuki Printer/Brailler: ++ BEX and Back Translator - 54 & 55/2. ++ BEX Interface Tips - 49/13. ++ Interfaced with tape-based VB - 49/14. + Thiel Braille Embosser, Service for - 51/11. + VersaPoint braille embosser: ++ Enhancements to - 53/5. ++ Price & noise decrease - 49/2.
Espinola, Olga; PC-PURSUIT: A Telecommunicator's Dream Come True - 59 & 60/19.
Ewers, Neal; Three Cheers for FILE-TALK - 50/7.
Gayzagian, Al; VersaBraille II+: They Actually Listened - 53/6.
Gilbertson, Conchita; Improving TranscriBEX's Indexing Commands - 54 & 55/3.
Gray, Chris; (with K. Smith) Tape-based VB to Ohtsuki Interfacing - 49/14.
Haj, Fareed: + Attention Educators: Talking PD Disks - 56 & 57/13. + Braille Proofreading with BEX - 54 & 55/24.
Hot Dots (RDC braille translation utilities for IBM-PC): + Dipner Dot Bugs and Workaround - 58/12. + File transfer to Apple with - 48/4. + Version 2.0 features - 59 & 60/3.
IBM-PC: (see also Hot Dots, MS-DOS): + compared with Apple in vocational settings - 52/7. + File transfer to BEX - 48/4. + Reformatting text from - 56 & 57/17. + Toshiba T1100 Plus Review (MS-DOS Laptop) - 56 & 57/19.
Koala Pad, Skerfiler talking phone & address utility - 50/5.
Keynote (talking portable computer), interface with BEX - 54 & 55/8.
Lauer, Harvey: + Computers & Religion: A Meditation on Metaphor - 56 & 57/8. + Interviewed - 54 & 55/13. + Technology Serves the Bible Student - 50/10.
Large print: + "BAS" transcription services - 54 & 55/27. + BEX sample output - 59 & 60/8. + Screen access to Macintosh - 49/8; 59 & 60/5.
Macintosh: + and Braille Output - 59 & 60/12. + File transfer to BEX - 48/8. + Large Print Access: ++ inLARGE software utility - 59 & 60/5. ++ MacVideo Processor hardware - 49/8.
Martineau, Dean: + Punctuation & Symbols in Contextual Replace - 51/4. + Two-column Printing on the ImageWriter - 52/5.
May, Mike; A Few New Tips on Ohtsuki - 49/13.
McLanahan, Bruce; Talking Educational Software in Iowa - 51/14.
Memory Expansion Cards: + RAM drives with BEX 2.2 - 51/6; 54 & 55/6. + RAM drives with BEX 3.0 - 56 & 57/2; 56 & 57/21; 59 & 60/9.
MS-DOS Software: (see also Hot Dots): + Model Tea Reader (screen access program) - 59 & 60/3. + PC-WRITE (shareware word processor) - 59 & 60/3. + Telefile (MS-DOS talking address book) - 59 & 60/5.
MS-DOS Resources & Information: + Borland Software Manuals on Disk - 59 & 60/22. + Fido (Bulletin Board) Manual in Braille - 53/13. + "Talk-to-me-Tutorials" (audio tapes) - 50/12; 54 & 55/24; 59 & 60/22.
Paperless Braillers; see VersaBraille.
Press Braille Production at NBP, using BEX for - 49/3.
Printers: + Braille Dot Pattern Font with BEX - 51/3. + ImageWriter: ++ BEX Large print sample output from - 59 & 60/8. ++ Left margin set by automatic set-up sequence - 59 & 60/7. ++ Subscripts & Superscripts - 52/6. ++ Two-column printing - 52/5. + Ohtsuki Printer/Brailler; see Embossers
ProDOS (Apple II operating system): + and BEX, co-existence - 50/3. + development costs contrasted with DOS 3.3 - 56 & 57/22. + RAM drives, speed compared with BEX - 56 & 57/21. + textfiles, created with AppleWorks - 52/9. + textfiles, created with QTC - 52/2.
Publications: + Computer-related: ++ Borland Software Manuals on Disk - 59 & 60/22. ++ CompuHelp-On-Disk (Bulletin Board) - 49/4. ++ Fido (Bulletin Board) Manual in Braille - 53/13. ++ Financing Adaptive Technology - 54 & 55/23. + Resource Directory of Scientists & Engineers with Disabilities - 54 & 55/23. ++ National Braille Press' Beginner's Guides - 53/13. + Braille-related: ++ BUOC Teaching Materials - 59 & 60/22. ++ Code for Computer Braille Notation - 58/2. ++ Report of the Computer Braille Workshop (NBA) - 58/2. ++ SEEDLINGS Braille Books for Children - 49/11.
+ Newsletters: ++ APPLE-TALK (quarterly disk) - 59 & 60/22. ++ BAUD (audio tape & disk bimonthly) - 49/11. ++ Communicator (print & audio quarterly) - 50/12. ++ Microcomputer News for Teachers of Blind students (print, audio & disk quarterly) - 50/12. ++ TACTIC (braille quarterly) - 49/11. ++ VersaNews (inkprint, VB tape, & disk triquarterly) - 49/11. ++ World News Today (braille newsweekly) - 51/13.
QTC (RDC ProDOS Quick Textfile Converter utility): + Availability - 53/2. + Features - 52/2.
RAM Drives; see Memory Expansion Cards.
Raised Dot Computing (see also BEX; QTC; TranscriBEX; Hot Dots): + History of, Part 4 - 48/12. + Newsletter: ++ Advertising in - 49/8. ++ Index to 1985 & 1986 - 49/3. + Sales Tax - 52/3. + Sending Disks to RDC - 49/2. + Technical Support - 54 & 55/10.
Recreational Computing: (see also Publications: Newsletters): + Bible: ++ Cassettes - 50/10. ++ The Word Processor (Apple text retrieval program for Bible) - 50/10. + Descriptive Video Services (DVS) - 59 & 60/2. + Password Talk Game (Apple) - 53/12. + Sensory Overload, Inc. (sick humor) - 50/2; 51/2.
Smith, Ken: + (with Diann Smith) Simulated Braille with Dipner Dots - 54 & 55/5. + (with C. Gray) Tape-based VB to Ohtsuki Interfacing - 49/14.
Training: + Communicator (print & audio quarterly) - 50/12. + Florida, talking software in - 56 & 57/3. + Iowa, Talking software in - 51/14. + Microcomputer News for Teachers of Blind students (print, audio & disk quarterly) - 50/12. + NARIC database - 53/13. + National Technology Center AFB - 52/14. + New Jersey Technical Aids Center - 54 & 55/11. + "Talk-to-me-Tutorials" for MS-DOS (audio tapes) - 50/12; 54 & 55/24; 59 & 60/22. + Translation-typing groups, establishing - 59 & 60/16. + Veteran's Administration Blind Center, Illinois - 54 & 55/13.
TranscriBEX: + AppleWorks 2.0 file transfer to - 52/9. + Braille boldface indicators - 54 & 55/3. + Centering long lines on title pages and \\ct - 53/4; 54/2. + Continued print page indicators and \\ppc - 52/4. + Indexing commands, improving - 54 & 55/3. + NBP Press Braille with - 49/3. + Proofreading print page indicators - 56 & 57/16. + Translation-Typing Groups, Establishing - 59 & 60/16.
Telecommunications: + CompuHelp Bulletin Board - 49/4. + CompuServe Information Service - 49/4. + Fido (Bulletin Board) Manual in Braille - 53/13. + 4-SIGHTS NETWORK - 49/4. + NARIC (National Rehabilitation Information Center) - 53/13. + PC-PURSUIT - 59 & 60/19. + ProTERM Plus (talking Apple terminal program) Review - 52/12. + REHABDATA - 53/13.
Thiel Braille Embosser, Service for - 51/11.
Utter, Kevin; Using Echo with Applesoft Editor - 48/6.
VersaBraille paperless brailler: + II Plus (disk-based) Reviews, Pro & Con - 53/6; 53/9. + Interface (tape-based, "Classic") with Ohtsuki - 49/13. + VersaBraille Forum on CompuServe - 49/4. + VersaNews (magazine on VB tape & disk) - 49/11.
VersaPoint braille embosser: + Enhancements to - 53/5. + Price & noise decrease - 49/2.
Wright, Richard; Speeding Up BEX with RAM drives - 54 & 55/6.
About the author: Barney Barnett maintains the operational integrity of an eight-Apple IIe computer braille section at Prose & Cons Braille Unit in the Lincoln, Nebraska area, and has worked with BRAILLE-EDIT and BETTE and served as a BEX and TranscriBEX tester for RDC. His goal: "endeavor to persevere."
Phyllis Herrington - Technical Support
David Holladay - Programming
Jesse Kaysen - Publications Manager
Caryn Navy - Programming
Nevin Olson - Business Manager
Becky "Q" Rundall - Sales Manager
The large print edition of the RDC Newsletter is written and coded with BEX on an Apple IIgs; file transfer with BEX, QTC and Apple File Exchange to a Macintosh Plus; spelling checked with Spellswell 2.0; camera-ready offset masters of 13/15 Palatino and 14 point Bookman created with JustText and an Apple LaserWriter Plus; schlepped to The Print Shop for offset duplication.
Two-track audio edition recorded on APH Recorder then duplicated at high speed on Recordex 300 Series II 3-to-1 duplicators onto tapes from a dizzying variety of suppliers.
Apple Computer, Apple IIc, Apple IIe, Apple IIgs, LaserWriter Plus, ProDOS, & Super Serial Card are trademarks of Apple Computer Inc.; AppleWorks is a trademark of Claris Corp.; BEX, BETTE, BRAILLE-EDIT, Hot Dots, QTC, and TranscriBEX are trademarks of Raised Dot Computing, Inc.; Cricket, Echo II, Echo Plus, Echo IIb, & TEXTALKER are trademarks of Street Electronics Corp.; Diversi-COPY is a trademark of DSR, Inc.; IBM-PC and MS-DOS are trademarks of International Business Machines, Inc.; JustText is a trademark of Knowledge Engineering; Optacon, VersaBraille, VersaBraille II, and VersaPoint are trademarks of Telesensory Systems, Inc.; PC-Write is a trademark of Bob Wallace and Quicksoft, Inc. Spellswell is a trademark of Working Software, Inc.